High DHA dosage from algae oil improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and is safe for type-2 diabetics
S. D. Doughman & A. S. Ryan & S. Krupanidhi & C. B. Sanjeevi & V. Mohan
Received: 2 May 2011 / Accepted: 25 April 2013
S. D. Doughman (*), Source-Omega, LLC, 11312 US 15-501 North, Suite 107-122, Chapel Hill, NC 27517, USA
A. S. Ryan, Martek Biosciences Corporation, Columbia, MD 21045, USA
S. Krupanidhi, Department of Biotechnology, Vignan University, Vadlamudi 522213, India
C. B. Sanjeevi, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
V. Mohan, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation and Dr Mohan's Diabetes Specialties Centre, Chennai, India
Postprandial refers to diet induced changes in
plasma concentrations of sugars, amino acids and fats between
0 and 6 h following a meal. This review details the fat
transport through lipoprotein particles and triglyceride fractions
in the postprandial plasma. The long-chain omega-3
fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is more active in
postprandial plasma and is more abundantly incorporated
into the surface phospholipid fraction of lipoproteins. A
survey of controlled clinical trials in the literature demonstrates
that 1,000 mg to 2,000 mg DHA daily is effective to
treat hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), mixed dyslipidemia and
most effectively controls elevated postprandial triglycerides
(TG). TG is a marker for total fat in circulation. Omega-3
fatty acids lower fasting and postprandial TG, an activity
first discovered in 1971 in Greenlandic Inuits. Low TG and
high DHA were coincident with the absence of type 2
diabetes. It is now known that DHA is the major structural
and functional omega-3 component of lipoproteins in human
plasma. DHA is the omega-3 to most substantially
increase by mass in the phospholipid fraction of very lowdensity
lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins
(LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). DHA is most
effective at raising HDL levels and improves the omega-3
index in red blood cells (RBC). DHA intake also correlates
with greater than 25 % reductions of fasting TG and greater
than 40 % reductions in postprandial TG. Postprandial HTG
is common in the type 2 diabetes; therefore, we considered
the safety of DHA from Schizochytrium sp. algae oil and the
evidence for risk reduction of coronary vascular disease
(CVD) and type 2 diabetes. Recent clinical trials suggest
high DHA intake from Chromista algae controls plasma TG,
but does not appear to control glucocentric markers or
cholesterol levels. DHA directly affects postprandial TG
transport, but has little effect on insulin function and insulin
resistance. Applications for use in South Asian diabetics are
considered. 1,200 mg algae DHA daily over 3 months is an
optimized program for direct control of postprandial HTG
and is safe for type 2 diabetics.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Nutrition and Medicine: Considering Microalgae Oil as a Vegetarian Source of EPA and DHA
Scott D. Doughman1,2, Srirama Krupanidhi1 and Carani B. Sanjeevi3,
Curr Diabetes Rev. 2007, 3:198-203; Bentham Scientific Publications.
Department of Biosciences, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam, 515134, India.
Department of Nutrition,School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 25799, USA.
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Abstract: Long-chain EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can be co-preventative and co-therapeutic. Current research suggests increasing accumulated long chain omega-3s for health benefits and as natural medicine in several major diseases. But many believe plant omega-3 sources are nutritionally and therapeutically equivalent to the EPA/DHA omega-3 in fish oil. Although healthy, precursor ALA bio-conversion to EPA is inefficient and production of DHA is nearly absent, limiting the protective value of ALA supplementation from flax-oil, for example. Along with pollutants certain fish acquire high levels of EPA/DHA as predatory species. However, the origin of EPA/DHA in aquatic ecosystems is algae. Certain microalgae produce high levels of EPA or DHA. Now, orginically produced DHA-rich microalgae oil is available. Clinical trials with DHA-rich oil indicate comparable efficacies to fish oil for protection from cardiovascular risk factors by lowering plasma triglycerides and oxidative stress. This review discusses 1) omega-3 fatty acids in nutrition and medicine; 2) omega-3s in physiology and gene regulation; 3) possible protective mechanisms of EPA/DHA in major diseases such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cancer and type 2 diabetes; 4) EPA and DHA requirements considering fish oil safety; and 5) microalgae EPA and DHA-rich oils and recent clinical results.
A Substitute for Fish Oil: Qualifying Algae Oil Omega-3s as a Medical Food
Scott D. Doughman
Source-Omega, LLC Chapel Hill, USA
Narosa Publications [in press]
ALGAE OIL IS A NON-PRESCRIPTION MEDICAL FOOD.
Algae oil clinical applications so far fulfill the absolute requirements needed to be a reliable fish oil substitute in omega-3 medicine. Medical food qualifications for omega-3s are based on a large and growing body of evidence. The term medical food, as defined in section 5(b) of the Orphan Drug Act (21 U.S.C. 360ee (b) is "a food which is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements, based on recognized scientific principles, are established by medical evaluation" [www.fda.gov]. Medical foods are specially formulated for the dietary management of a disease that has distinctive nutritional needs not met by normal diet alone. Algae oil is an appropriate medical food source for specialty diets, those with allergies to fish and other non-fish eating populations as a substitute for fish oil. In order for algae oil to be considered a medical food, the omega-3s require oral ingestion and must be labeled for use in treatment of one condition specific disease, for which there are definite nutritional requirements.
RELATED PRESS: The Source-Omega company's invited manuscript was accepted after independent international peer review. It is published as an academic chapter in the book Environmental Pollution: Ecology and Human Health, published by Narosa [http://www.narosa.com/books_display.asp?catgcode=978-81-8487-112-8].
DISCUSSION: BANG et al., 1971*: (*not our paper, presented for discussion:)
ASSERTION: The original Eskimo studies showed intestinal lipoprotein concentrations inversely correlated with DHA/EPA intake, suggesting postprandial benefits from DHA-rich diets reduce dietary blood fat concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes. Heart health was a benefit interpreted from this data, not demonstrated. Type 2 diabetes risk reduction was implicated in the Eskimo studies, but not further interpreted, even though it was arguably the only correct interpretation of that data. [Bang, Dyerburg, Neilsen, Lancet 1971, June 5, p. 1143-1145] PLASMA LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN PATTERN IN GREENLANDIC WEST-COAST ESKIMOS.
NOTE: Translation of pre-beta-lipoprotein is today called a Chylomicron, an intestinal originating lipoprotein, not a liver originating lipoprotein.
KEY: For BANG et al., 1971
Chylomicron "Intestinal Lipoprotein" transports only to the liver
LDL "Bad Cholesterol" transports to the body and organs
HDL "Good Cholesterol" transports back to liver from body and organs